|Tubes||Material||Use||Temperature range of use||Dimensions|
|type 1244||HDPE||for various technical and laboratory purposes, in the car industry||0 až +40°C|
|type 1890||PS||for various technical and laboratory purposes||0 až +80°C|
|type 2594||LDPE||non-pressurised transport of liquid, gaseous and powdery media in the chemical and food industry, also for laboratory purposes, medicine and for the needs of agriculture||-5°C až +40°C|
|type 2607||PP||for various technical and laboratory purposes||0°C až +40°C|
|type 2700||LDPE||for instance as a means of protectection when completing snow chains for cars||-30°C až +40°C|
|type 1247||PVC-U||for technical purposes||+5°C to +40°C, in the short term +60°C|
- PVC (polyvinylchloride) is a universal, proven, and reliable material. It was developed in the thirties of the 20th century as one of the first synthetic materials – plastics. It is a material well workable using various technologies, e.g. rolling, extrusion, depositing, or casting, therefore it is predestined for wide range of applications.
- PVC has a unique combination of features, which can be further modified in various ways using processing additives. PVC is usually classified into softened - called most frequently PVC-P, ands hard - called PVC-U. Polyvinylchloride ranks among materials that can be recycled well and reused in the manufacture of products. Recyclable PVC is marked PVC-R. In general, products from PVC are called vinyl products.
- PVC-U features higher strength, consistence, and hardness. It is used most frequently in products for technical applications where its physical-mechanical features together with long service life are appreciated. Typical examples of applications include:
- transport pipes for various liquids (drinking water, waste)
- profiles – mainly window profiles, but also smaller technical profiles for automotive or electrical industry
- moulded products – fittings, transient and end components of conducts
- drug and medicament packages, so-called blister packages
- food product packages, e.g. frozen products.
- PVC itself is a powdery material. By adding various processing additives according to requirements of the final application, a mixture is prepared in the pellet form – PVC-U granulate. The granulate is processed further into a final product using thermal and pressure effects. For the abovementioned technical applications, extrusion technology (pipes, profiles), injection moulding (3D products) or moulding processes are used.
- PE (polyethylene) is the most frequently used plastic in the world. Its annual production exceeds 90 million tons. It was developed in 1933. This invention was essential for the development of modern plastic materials, which we cannot imagine our life without anymore. From the chemical point of view, the polyethylene structure is very simple, therefore it can be produced relatively in an easy and inexpensive way. According to its density, polyethylene is classified into two major types, so-called low-density (LDPE) and high-density (HDPE), the third type is the so-called linear low-density PE (LLDPE).
- Both PE types can be processed easily using plastic-processing technologies, and manufacture products of various shapes and sizes from them. In general, polyethylene has an excellent strength, high toughness, and ductility; products may be transparent or coloured with pigments. The common PE processing method is extrusion (2D products) and injection moulding (3D products).
- The best-known polyethylene applications include:
- flexible packages – bags for fresh and frozen food products, shopping bags, extensible foils,
- solid packages – bottles for detergents and cosmetics, cans, barrels, large-size containers
- daily need products – minor kitchen dishes
- tubes and pipes
- Polyethylene may be recycled. It is widely present in the communal waste, therefore there are efforts to sort it (yellow container for sorted waste) and reuse.
- LDPE is a polyethylene with lower density. It is the most frequently used material in the production of foils, in particular for packaging. All simple types of disposable bags, garbage bags, and shopping bags are made just from LDPE. The reason is particularly its low price and easy processing ability.
- Foils are manufactured by extrusion, either as 2D foils or hoses (tubular extrusion). Foils can be made as very thin (bags for baked goods) or thick-walled (large bags). Package thickness may be adapted to application requirements from 30 micrometers (0.030 mm) up to 200 micrometers.
- Should the final package be resistant against perforation, PE foils may be laminated with another foil type improving features of the final package. For example, lamination with PET foil (polyethylene-terephthalate) is used in the production of foodstuff bags for pets. Lamination with a paperboard is applied in the production of juice packages (Tetrapack type).
- The benefit of LDPE is that it can be imprinted very well. Shopping bags and large bags can be decorated with multi-colour print. This material can also be welded to achieve various shapes of pouches and bags. Recycled PE may be returned back for the production of pouches and bags, which saves the environment.
- HDPE, or high-density polyethylene, is under ordinary circumstances a material of milky colour that differs from other polyethylene types by higher strength and ductility. Since the material is more consistent, the foils and packages produced from it are stronger. The HDPE bag thus has a higher load capacity than a LDPE bag of identical thickness. This is beneficial in the production of very thin bags; HDPE bag thickness is from 7 micrometers.
- In addition to flexible packages, HDPE is also a very suitable material for strong packages. Best-known allocations are cosmetic bottles (detergents, shampoos), and cans.
- HDPE is used also in technical applications, e.g. as septic tanks, in the production of pipes, and for sheathing of cables and harnesses. Septic tanks may have very complicated shapes and large capacities. The advantage of HDPE in these applications is its natural strength and consistency.
- PP (polypropylene) is the second most frequently used material in Europe. Its share in consumption of plastic materials ranges about 20 %. Polypropylene is By its features and use, polypropylene is similar to polyethylene, therefore both of these polymers are classified in the same group indicated as polyolefins. Unlike PE, PP however features higher strength and consistency, and since its melting temperature is higher, it shows good temperature stability. PP consistency imparts good dimensional stability to products.
- Polypropylene can be found almost anywhere: in packaging materials, household appliances, clothing, means of transport, and many other products. More than half of the world PP production is used for packages. It is also used in technical applications.
- It is used among others in the production of:
- packages – flexible foils, pots for dairy products and beverage machines, moulded trays, package caps, bottle caps, bags, notebook covers
- textile – fibres (thermal underwear, carpets), strings, ropes, binding strips
- pipes – tubes of various diameters for water and other liquids
- automotive parts – bumpers, tanks, cable sheathing
- consumer goods – ball-point pens, measuring jugs, trays, small items including promotional
- PP is used also in the production of plastic currency.
Ing. Tomáš Zmrzlík
Tel.: +420 577 503 273
Fax: +420 577 502 270
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